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Limits of disturbance landscape design

Limits of disturbance landscape design



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Limits of disturbance landscape design

This post is written by Victor Atanasov. Victor is an Assistant Professor at University of Kassel and the author of the following books: [*Deviant Urbanism*]{}, [*The Development of Disorder*]{} and [*The Ecological Complementarities of Planners and Urbanists: Urban Disorder and the Struggle for Order*]{}.

Urban life, like it or not, is predicated upon the use of limited resources. This fact cannot be avoided and it is the most difficult problem that urban planners have to deal with. Although the development of modern society produced some permanent sources of waste and pollution, the degree of this nuisance is dramatically increasing and is obviously not well addressed by city administrators and most of the planning processes. Urban spaces are usually the result of planning processes where many contradictions can be found. Space is allocated for some needs and certain limits of disturbance, as well as additional public and social space, are set to meet them. For example, urban property and residential buildings are usually built in an area which cannot be used for other purposes, such as offices, public spaces or commerce. As a result, urban spaces are separated from each other and the natural patterns and landscapes are disturbed. Because of limited space allocation, social inequalities also increase and are also frequently associated with additional spatial differentiations. The present article, however, will attempt to make some interesting remarks on limits of disturbance in urban planning.

Some ways of increasing the territory occupied by humans and improving their living conditions involve the process of population expansion. The result of such policy is usually a continued increase in the number of humans dwelling in the city and the resulting crowding in the center. In this way, the city becomes concentrated around a small area while most of the territory is unused and mainly maintained by nature. In general, “growing” cities assume their limits and do not have to exceed them. However, urban growth, such as that in modern Rome, usually tends to increase the size and complexity of urban structures. This is the case with the Empire for example. With the increasing size and degree of urbanization the sizes of residential buildings and public space should increase, resulting in the formation of a complex system of buildings and surroundings, which tends to become a permanent part of the city. At the end of the process the city will reach its limits, as a number of buildings will not be able to accommodate the growing population, will become untenable or simply irrelevant. As a result, the city will be reduced to a small urban cluster or even to a small village-like settlement. In other words, city limits, in a first approximation, correspond to the limits of self-organization. Urban forms of the past, represented by small villages, have turned into urban centers and urban forms of the present, represented by large cities, have turned into the city limits.

The concept of limits of disturbance was introduced by the Austrian sociologist Otto Kaller and its value became more and more appreciated by theorists and researchers interested in social and economic processes. As it was defined in the post-war period, limits of disturbance are, in a general way, the external or organizational limits that prevent further development of the economy and industry. The economic limits, when they prevent further development, are usually defined with reference to the size of city and the population inhabiting it, which represents the basic measure of economic activity. The main aspect of a disturbance is not its form, or how it looks like, but the degree of its impact. The size of a disturbance may depend on its nature, but its influence on the social process is not an independent variable, but a function of the internal rules and the organizational structure of society and the economic system. A natural economy, where limits of disturbance are absent, exists where one cannot distinguish boundaries between one activity and another one and all forms of “stuff” become identical and invisible, without consequences. Therefore, Kaller considered disturbances as internal factors that create situations which cannot be eliminated by external factors (constrictions) or that act as permanent obstacles to the further development of society.

A city is usually defined by different features.La mayoría de los residentes de una ciudad viven en el área "informal" de la ciudad, y la mayoría del espacio en la ciudad generalmente está ocupado por oficinas gubernamentales, edificios comerciales e industriales, pero esta no es la extensión total de la ciudad. límites. De hecho, si tenemos en cuenta los límites físicos y sociales de la ciudad, deberíamos poder ver algunas dimensiones interesantes de la ciudad como sistema. Desde este punto de vista, la ciudad se puede comparar con un ecosistema natural, que es un complejo de muchas especies, todas ellas viviendo juntas a sus propios formas y espacios. El tamaño de la ciudad es del tamaño del territorio habitado por los humanos. Los habitantes pueden incluir grupos desarrollados y menos desarrollados. La población de una ciudad está compuesta de sistemas sociales más o menos desarrollados, que representan otras especies de ecosistemas. Una ciudad es el espacio ocupado por los humanos, y los objetos y actividades que no pueden implementarse en una ciudad determinada no son tan importantes.

La Figura 1 muestra una estructura que ilustra algunas formas posibles de espacio urbano y el complejo de actividades que contienen. El objetivo de la vista, presentada aquí, es mostrar las similitudes de una ciudad y un ecosistema. Según este punto de vista, los límites de la ciudad representan algunas características clave que representan límites entre especies de ecosistemas, ya que estas características clave no se pueden cruzar. Sin embargo, una ciudad sin límites se convierte en un espacio natural y no perturbado, mientras que los límites de una ciudad hacen que sus habitantes sean diferentes de otras especies y les proporcionen